Marcos Rubinstein (M’84–SM’11–F’14) received the Master’s and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, in 1986 and 1991, respectively. In 1992, he joined the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, where he was involved in the fields of electromagnetic compatibility and lightning location. From 1995 to 2000, he worked as a research engineer, project manager and program manager at Swisscom in the areas of numerical electromagnetics and EMC. In 2001, he moved to the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland HES-SO, Yverdon-les-Bains, where he is currently a full Professor and head of the Advanced Communication Technologies Group. He is the author or coauthor of more than 200 scientific publications in reviewed journals and international conferences. He is also the coauthor of nine book chapters and the co-editor of a book. He served as the Editor-in-Chief of the Open Atmospheric Science Journal, and currently serves as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility.
Prof. Rubinstein received the best Master’s Thesis award from the University of Florida. He received the IEEE Achievement Award and he is a co-recipient of the NASA’s Recognition for Innovative Technological Work award and the ICLP Karl Berger award. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and an EMP Fellow, a member of the Swiss Academy of Sciences and of the International Union of Radio Science. Following is summary of his presentation options.
Talk 1: Lightning Location Techniques
Lightning is an atmospheric discharge whose length is measured in km and carrying currents that can reach many tens of kA or even hundreds of kA, making it a long efficient antenna for frequencies of the order of several kHz to several MHz. Its detection and location are of importance for engineering, safety and scientific purposes. In this lecture, the lightning detection and location techniques used by currently deployed commercial lightning location systems are described and explained, including Direction Finding, Time of Arrival and Interferometry. The newly proposed Electromagnetic Time Reversal technique is also explained.
Talk 2: What is Lightning?
Lightning is a complex phenomenon composed of numerous physical processes, of which only a few are visible to the naked eye. In this lecture, a historical review of lightning research is given, including an overview of the types of lightning that exist in the terrestrial atmosphere. The main processes in a lightning discharge are also presented and discussed in the lecture, pointing out those that are responsible for interference and damages to electronic equipment, for the initiation of fires, and for injury or death to livestock and human beings.
Talk 3: Lightning Measurement Techniques
Lightning research and lightning protection engineering require the knowledge of statistical values, including typical, maxima and minima, of parameters such as the lightning current, the radiated electromagnetic field amplitudes, the steepness of the waveforms, etc. Lightning measurements are intrinsically difficult due to the harsh electromagnetic compatibility environment created by the phenomenon itself. In this lecture, the techniques used to carry out direct measurements of lightning currents, remote measurements of electromagnetic fields from lightning, measurements of the lightning channel inside the clouds, and optical measurements of the lightning channel are described. Values of the salient parameters are also given and discussed.
Dr. Xiaoxiong (Kevin) Gu received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Washington in 2006. He joined IBM T. J. Watson Research Center as a Research Staff Member in January 2007. His research activities are focused on Signal and Power Integrity with emphasis on 5G radio access technologies, optoelectronic and mm-wave packaging, electrical designs, modeling and characterization of communication and computation systems. He has also worked on 3D electrical packaging and EMC analysis for high-speed I/O subsystems including on-chip and off-chip interconnects. He has been involved in developing novel TSV and interposer technologies for heterogeneous system integration. He also has extensive experience in antenna-in-package design and integration for mm-wave imaging and communication systems including Ka-band, V-band and W-band phased-array modules.
Dr. Gu has authored and co-authored over 80 IEEE Transactions/Conference papers and has nine issued patents. He was the co-recipient of ISSCC 2017 Lewis Winner Award for Outstanding Paper (the world's first reported silicon-based 5G mmWave phased array antenna module operating at 28 GHz). He also received an IBM Outstanding Technical Achievement Award in 2016, four IBM Plateau Invention Awards in 2012 ~ 2016, the IEEE EMC Symposium Best Paper Award in 2013, two SRC Mahboob Khan Outstanding Industry Liaison Awards in 2012 and 2014, the Best Conference Paper Award at IEEE EPEPS in 2011, IEC DesignCon Paper Awards in 2008 and 2010, the Best Interactive Session Paper Award at IEEE in 2008, and the Best Session Paper Award at IEEE ECTC in 2007. Dr. Gu was also the general chair of IEEE 2018 EPEPS Conference. Dr. Gu is the co-chair of Professional Interest Community (PIC) on Computer System Designs at IBM. He is a Senior Member of IEEE and has been serving on the technical program committees for IMS, EPEPS, ECTC, EDAPS and DesignCon. Following is summary of his presentation options.
Talk 1: Signal and Power Integrity Co-Design and Antenna Integration for Silicon-Based Millimeter-Wave Front-End Modules
Signal and Power integrity is becoming very critical in modern designs involving integration of diverse design modules and domains. MmWave technology is rising as a crucial component for 5G radio access and other emerging ancillary wireless networks including Gb/s device-to-device communication and mobile backhaul. This talk covers recent advances in state-of-the-art mmWave silicon technology with an emphasis on packaging and integrated antenna design in the context of 5G communications. The main challenges in 5G hardware development and the corresponding mitigation strategies are discussed with a focus on signal and power integrity co-design of the front-end module, electromagnetic radiations, as well as RFIC, antenna and packaging integration technologies. The talk emphasizes the following key enablers for the commercial scale deployment of mm-wave technology in the 5G era: 1) highly integrated and complex circuits in silicon technologies, and 2) strategies for IC, package, antenna and board co-design and integration. Through various examples of mmWave transceivers with antennas-in-package demonstrated in hardware, this talk illustrates how these challenges can be addressed for a variety of potential 5G usage scenarios, from PAN to backhaul.
Talk 2: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementations of Silicon Integration and Packaging in mmWave Radar and Communication Applications
Co-design and integration of RFIC, package, and antennas are critical to enable multiple aspects of 5G communications (backhaul, last mile, mobile access) and are particularly challenging at mmWave frequencies. This talk will cover various important aspects of mmWave antenna module packaging and integration for base station, backhaul, and user equipment applications, respectively, with particular emphasis on signal, power and EMC integrity. We will first present a historical perspective on Si-based mmWave modules and approaches for antenna and IC integration including trade-offs. We will focus on the challenges, implementation, and characterization of a 28-GHz phased-array module with 64 dual polarized antennas for 5G base station applications. Second, we will present a W-band phased-array module with 64-element dual-polarization antennas for radar imaging and backhaul application. The module consists of a multilayer organic chip-carrier package and a 16-element phased-array TX IC or a 32-element RX IC chipset. Third, we will describe a compact, low-power, 60-GHz switched-beam transceiver module suitable for handset integration incorporating four antennas that support both normal and end-fire directions for a wide link spatial coverage. Detailed signal, power and EMC modeling and analysis of the modules and the system are presented.
Seungyoung Ahn received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, in 1998, 2000, and 2005, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Cho Chun Shik Graduate School for Green Transportation, KAIST. His research interests include wireless power transfer (WPT) system design and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design for electric vehicle and digital systems, High-Frequency Modeling of Through-Silicon Via for High Density Package and Biomedical Device using Wireless Power Transfer Technology. He has published over 70 journal and 100 international conference papers, and has been granted over 10 patents. He has given extensive invited talks on Wireless Power Transfer. Following is summary of his presentation options.
Talk 1: Electromagnetic Compatibility for Wireless Power Transfer
Wireless power transfer (WPT) is one of the most promising technologies in recent years, which is expected to provide ultimate convenience and safety of electronic systems and to create huge market in mobile devices, electric vehicles, biomedical implants, and IoT sensor network applications in the near future. However, as the power of the WPT system increases and the distance from Tx to Rx increases, the interference to other electronic system and the electromagnetic field effect on the human body becomes a serious problem. The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues of WPT systems are very critical in the commercialization of the wireless power devices. In this lecture, the EMC aspects of magnetic resonant and microwave WPT systems are discussed in terms of electromagnetic field generation and solutions in different applications. Although the research on the various EMC solutions for general electronic systems has been done for decades, most of EMC techniques for the reduction of unwanted electromagnetic fields are not applicable due to physical limitation of the WPT system. Instead, recent advances in electromagnetic field reduction methods for WPT systems such as magnetic field shaping, active/passive/reactive shielding, field cancelling, and harmonic filtering techniques for a magnetic resonant WPT system are investigated. In addition, retro-directive and time reversal techniques for microwave power transmission are developed, as well as traditional electromagnetic interference reduction methods. This lecture also covers the trend of standardization of WPT technology as the EMC problem of the WPT system is the key issue in industry. The future direction of EMC standard issues of a WPT system such as on frequency allocation, field regulation, and standard measurement of electromagnetic field from a WPT system is explained.
Talk 2: Semiconductor Electromagnetic Compatibility Modeling for Power Devices and Packages
The achievements of semiconductor technology are constantly creating new challenges in EMC. In the case of a passive semiconductor, the package of high bandwidth devices with high frequency operation requires an accurate and wide-band equivalent model for best performance with minimal size. In the case of active devices, new compound semiconductors such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) or Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistors are developed for high power applications. These semiconductor components and devices are now breaking the bottleneck of size reduction and data rate increase. Therefore, accurate modeling of these semiconductor components considering the material characteristics from kHz to GHz is necessary for the system level EMC performance. In this lecture, the active and passive semiconductors and its modeling are discussed. Beginning with the understanding of physical characteristics of semiconductor and the mathematical model, the recent electrical equivalent circuit models at high frequency are explained. While the ultimately small size of TSV packages and low cost multi-IC modules are developed, the package structure, bias conditions, temperature, and trapped charges are the main factors determining the metal-oxide-silicon capacitance and the overall system performance. The signal integrity and power integrity analysis considering these factors are also discussed based on recent research trends. The characteristics of active devices also significantly affect the system level emission and susceptibility. The GaN high electron-mobility transistors are widely developed for high power components with smaller size and good thermal characteristics. However, the silicon-based model is inaccurate to expect the characteristics of GaN transistors. Recent research on GaN transistor modeling and the system level analysis are explained, and the validation with measurements for the equivalent circuit model of GaN is demonstrated. The future direction of semiconductor modeling and simulation technology for EMC performance in the realistic circuit design applications is proposed.
Liang Zhou is a full professor with the School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. His main research interests include system on packaging (SoP) design and modeling, EMC and High Power Microwave (HPM) protection of communication platforms, and multi-physics and its application.
He received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of York, UK, in 2005. From 2005 to 2006, he was a Senior RF Engineer with Motorola INC, Shanghai, China, where he was involved in power amplifier design for the next generation of base station transceivers. Since May 2006, he joined the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of Design and Electromagnetic Compatibility of High-Speed Electronic Systems, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, as an assistant professor and then an associate professor. He has been a visiting scholar with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA since 2007. From January 2017, he became a full professor in electromagnetic fields and microwave techniques with the School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. From February 2017, he is a Research Fellow with the Institute for Electronics Engineering (LTE) of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany, granted by the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, Germany. He is the IEEE EMC Society Shanghai Chapter Chair since 2015, and an IEEE senior member.
Dr. Zhou was the recipient of Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) research fellowship in 2016, APEMC Young Scientist Award in 2016, the Research Grant of the Okawa Foundation (Japan) in 2016, the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) Young Scientist Award in 2014, the best paper awards of Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Wireless Conference (CSQRWC) in 2014, and the National Science and Technology Advancement Award of China in 2012. Following is summary of his presentation options.
Talk 1: HPEM Threats, Modeling and Analysis for RF Devices/Circuits Breakdown under Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI)
In the past few years, special attention has been focused on intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) effects on communication systems. High power electromagnetics (HPEM), as it is sometimes known, "EM Terrorism," is a new area of concern for public and commercial interests. Transceivers can be easily interfered with and their RF devices/circuits can be damaged under IEMI. In this talk, the electro-thermal-stress (E-T-S) multi-physics method is used to analyze the interactions of RF devices and electromagnetic pulses. It has been found the parameters of the electromagnetic pulse such as widths, numbers and repetition frequencies affect the thermal and stress of the RF devices. The device breakdown phenomena are observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) where the crack curve due to unrecoverable deformation in the device is displayed. TVS diodes and protection circuits are used in order to protect the RF devices. Simulation, measurement, and calculations show some correlations.
Talk 2: Heterogeneous 3-D Integration of a Millimeter-wave Transceiver Module and EMC Applications
Three-dimensional integrated design technology can provide a single standard electronic system with multiple functions and is the most important method to enhance the technical performance of modern ICs and expand their capabilities. 3-D ICs based on system in package will significantly improve the RF performance of a transceiver by integrating the system-on-chip made by different materials, such as GaAs, silicon, or even GaN semiconductors. A transceiver can accommodate digital, analog, millimeter-wave, and other circuits, as well as a large number of miniaturization of passive components embedded in a multilayer substrate. Thus, the integration can be achieved through a 3-D multifunctional circuit. Vertical through-hole array can improve the bandwidth of interconnections, reduce interconnection losses, shorten signal delay, and improve transmission rate and signal integrity. In this talk, ultra-wideband signal transmission attenuation, delay, waveform distortion, high frequency crosstalk, and self-excited oscillation signal integrity problems will be discussed. The model of the multi-input/multiple-output high-density interconnect vias and multichip array superimposed signal flow distribution network with hybrid integrated 3-D structure are investigated. Signal integrity, such as suppression of electromagnetic leakage, substrate coupling noise, and interchip ultra-wideband noise coupling is studied.
Talk 1: Challenges and Methods to Improve Accuracies in Antenna Calibrations and Site Qualification Measurements below 1 GHz
It is impractical to achieve a far-field and free-space environment for EMC antenna calibrations below 1 GHz due to the long wavelengths. Anechoic absorbers are also typically not large enough to achieve the requisite reflectivity performance to calibrate antennas. Standard site method (SSM) in an open area test site over a PEC ground plane is the industry standard for calibrating these low gain/low frequency antennas. Realizing most measurements are not performed in the far field in this frequency range, an accurate free-space antenna factor (AF) is actually not the most accurate representation of the underlying physics. Free-space AF (or gain) is shown as a compromised average, which yields low “enough” uncertainties. However, for anechoic chamber evaluations where much lower uncertainties are desired, a more rigorous model, including near-field effects, pattern variations, and phase center movement is needed. We discuss the assumptions and limitations of the SSM and the state-of-the-art research on improving the accuracy for antenna calibrations for both free-space antenna factors and site validation measurements.
Talk 2: Optimizing Results from Electric Field Probes during EMC Testing
In this presentation, we discuss the theory and applications of electric field probes as well as calibration methods. The presentation will discuss the influencing factors of the measurement uncertainties from the calibration process as well as during the end use, and practical considerations on how to reduce the effects.
Talk 3: Time Domain Site VSWR for Anechoic Chamber Evaluation
Typical anechoic chambers are evaluated using the site VSWR (for EMC chambers) or Free-space VSWR (antenna measurement chambers). In these methods, a receive antenna (probe antenna) is scanned over a distance. The standing wave in the chamber is measured, and the chamber reflectivity is derived from this measurement. This measurement can be performed alternatively by transforming the vector response in time domain (through inverse Fourier transform). In time domain, the reflections can be separated from the antenna main responses due to their time delays. The time domain VSWR method is currently being incorporated into the new ANSI C63.25 standard. We will discuss the implementations, benefits and challenges of using this method
Talk 4: Advanced Antenna Measurement Techniques Using Time Domain Transformation Abstract: Time domain gating is an effective technique to remove reflections in antenna measurements. The vector frequency response is transformed to time domain via inverse Fourier transforms, and a time domain gate can be applied. This function is included in commercial vector network analyzers. Although its applications seem straightforward, the implementations and limitations can feel like a “black-box”. We provide an “under-the-hood” review of this popular function, and explain the nuances in the time domain gating applications which can affect the measurement uncertainties. This presentation strives to provide an in-depth understanding of the time domain gating algorithm. Topics discussed include aliases, resolution, typical EMC antenna time signatures, window functions, and time domain gate shapes, etc. We then discuss the gating band edge errors (or “edge effects”), mitigation techniques and the limitations of the post-gate renormalization method used in a VNA. We introduce an alternative edge mitigation method, which improves the accuracy for many antenna measurement applications.
Talk 1: Electromagnetic Analysis Techniques for Printed Circuit Structures
Analysis techniques pertaining to mixed circuit and electromagnetic simulation of high-speed high-density printed circuit structures will be presented. In addition to pulse propagation on interconnects, simulation algorithms for EMI effects such as external field coupling to and radiation from printed circuit structures will be discussed.
Talk 2: Fundamentals and Recent Advances in Power Integrity
Starting from a qualitative introduction of power noise analysis, current design techniques will be reviewed with application to low voltage-high current data communication systems. The limitations of industrially accepted analysis techniques will be discussed with practical work-arounds. Some recent developments about the multipin optimization of decoupling capacitors will be discussed on sample cases.
Talk 1: EMC Fundamentals, Diagnosis and Challenges
Electronics have been widely applied in our work and life because of rapid technology advancement. In electronics, some are designed to generate and transmit signals, others are sensitive receivers. The signal quality, or data quality, is one of the inevitably basic but critical requirements in communications. According to the nature of electricity, the signal quality could be affected by all parameters/factors involved in data communications. The quality is mostly referred to as the tolerance level to the internal and external electromagnetic environment. This situation is directed to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) which is thus a crucial element in any modern electronics design. EMC is the ability of electronic/electric devices and systems that operate in their intended operational environment without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation, coupling or interference. It involves the electromagnetic spectrum control and management; concepts and doctrines for maximizing operational effectiveness, and system design configuration and guidelines for interference-free operation. This talk will be given in two parts: the first part presents the fundamental phenomena of electromagnetic interference, and second part addresses EMI diagnosis and EMC challenges.
Talk 2: Common-mode Electromagnetic Noise Mitigation for High-Speed Electronics
A wideband and compact microstrip filter for mitigating common-mode electromagnetic (EM) noise in high-speed electronic circuits is presented in this talk. By using specific slots etched in a ground metallic plane, which forms a defected ground structure (DGS), the common-mode noise can be suppressed. The effect of the DGS on the electromagnetic characteristics of the microstrip lines is examined. It is proved that the common-mode noise can be reduced at least by 15 dB at operational frequency with a broad bandwidth, whilst the differential signal is unaffected. An equivalent circuit model is also built based on the simulation result to understand the filtering behavior. The filter size is comparably small to the operational wavelength. A substrate-filled metallic cavity beneath a conventional DGS is proposed for the application in multilayer printed circuit boards. Behaving as electromagnetic shielding and absorption for the cavity, the back-radiation from the DGS is effectively reduced, while the filtering characteristic of the DGS is retained in the interested frequency band. The optimization technique is employed to realize the optimal filter with robust properties. The DGS based filtering technique can effectively tackle the EMI issue by increasing microstrip line insertion loss. It can be used extensively in microwave filter design.
Talk 3: Effective Modeling and Characterization of Lightning Effect on Aircraft Composite
The lightning strike on aircraft can induce a very large amount of electric current that redistributes on the aircraft skin. This could lead to a possible hazard. The extent of damage caused by a lightning strike increases due to the increased use of composite material in aerospace development. For instance, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is employed for aircraft fuselage and wing design. Since the lightning phenomenon and its direct redistribution effects are very complex, it is imperative to study the intrinsic characteristics of lightning direct and indirect effects on composite material through theoretical modeling and computational simulation. This is because experimental labs have tremendous difficultly duplicating the real lightning phenomenon. A theoretical modeling study examines the internal electromagnetic performance of different plies of composite materials and understands the conditions that may result in delamination or dielectric breakdown at the interface in the composite laminates and between composite and metallic objects. The current-carrying capability of composite is characterized for enhancing the aircraft lightning protection.